Department of Chemistry

Stage 2 Chemistry Social Relevance Projects.

Home | Contents | Cross Referenced Index | Experimental Procedures | Data Analysis

Analytical Standards


Standards are materials containing a known concentration of an analyte. They provide a reference to determine unknown concentrations or to calibrate analytical instruments.

The accuracy of an analytical measurement is how close a result comes to the true value. Determining the accuracy of a measurement usually requires calibration of the analytical method with a known standard. This is often done with standards of several concentrations to make a calibration or working curve.

Primary Standards

A primary standard is a reagent that is extremely pure, stable, has no waters of hydration, and has a high molecular weight.

Some primary standards for titration of acids:

Some primary standards for titration of bases:

Some primary standards for redox titrations:

Secondary Standards

A secondary standard is a standard that is prepared in the laboratory for a specific analysis. It is usually standardized against a primary standard.

NIST Standard Reference Materials

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provide a wide variety of standard reference materials (SRMs) for validating and calibrating analytical methods. Some examples of SRMs:

for chemical composition

for physical properties

for engineering materials