A channeltron is a horn-shaped continuous dynode structure that is coated on the inside with a electron emissive material. An ion striking the channeltron creates secondary electrons that have an avalanche effect to create more secondary electrons and finally a current pulse.
A Daly detector consists of a metal knob that emits secondary electrons when struck by an ion. The secondary electrons are accelerated onto a scintillator that produces light that is then detected by a photomultiplier tube.
Electron multiplier tubes are similar in design to photomultiplier tubes. They consist of a series of biased dynodes that eject secondary electrons when they are struck by an ion. They therefore multiply the ion current and can be used in analog or digital mode.
A Faraday cup is a metal cup that is placed in the path of the ion beam. It is attached to an electrometer, which measures the ion-beam current. Since a Faraday cup can only be used in an analog mode it is less sensitive than other detectors that are capable of operating in pulse-counting mode.
A microchannel plate consists of an array of glass capillaries (10-25 um inner diameter) that are coated on the inside with a electron-emissive material. The capillaries are biased at a high voltage and like the channeltron, an ion that strikes the inside wall one of the capillaries creates an avalanche of secondary electrons. This cascading effect creates a gain of 103 to 104 and produces a current pulse at the output.
Schematic of a microchannel plate
Microchannel plates (MCP) are also used as an intensifier for low-intensity light detection with array detectors.